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  1. Here is the chart that I always write before a Cisco exam while it's doing its demo. The order of the rows is random and non-essential. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIII I II III IIII IIIII IIIIII IIIIII IIIIIIII 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 80 C0 E0 F0 F8 FC FE FF /9 /10 /11 /12 /13 /14 /15 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 /21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 /32 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 127 63 31 15 7 3 1 0 126 62 30 14 6 2 0 0 Explained Line by Line: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [Subnet bits borrowed, counting from the left and including the leftmost bit position in the count] 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 [Host bits borrowed, counting from the right and NOT including the rightmost bit position in the count] IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIII [Visualization of a full 32-bit subnet mask] I II III IIII IIIII IIIIII IIIIII IIIIIIII [Subnet mask bits being used for the active octet] 128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255 [Decimal sum of the namespace for IP addresses; also the network address of the last subnet] 80 C0 E0 F0 F8 FC FE FF [Hexadecimal sum of the namespace for IP addresses] /9 /10 /11 /12 /13 /14 /15 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 /21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 /32 [CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)] 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 [Number of valid IP addresses given subnet length - known as the block size or the increment] 127 63 31 15 7 3 1 0 [Wildcard IP addresses] 126 60 30 14 6 2 0 0 [Number of valid hosts give the subnet length, making room for broadcast and default gateway]